How to make a face mask after new shop rules revealed
FROM July 24 Brits will have to wear face masks when entering shops – or face being fined.
Face coverings are also mandatory on trains, buses, ferries, and aircraft to prevent a second peak of coronavirus in the UK.
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Previously, people entering shops were advised to wear a face mask but were not kicked out of the store for not having one.
Passengers on public transport were also advised to wear masks but were not fined for not wearing a face mask.
However, new rules have been implemented on protecting people from catching the virus.
Commuters will be refused travel if they aren't wearing and customers in stores will be fined if they do not wear a face mask.
Transport Secretary Grant Shapps has urged people to only wear face coverings – such as a scarf, piece of cloth or mask – and not surgical masks which should be reserved for health staff.
Commuters should expect to see signs at stations and transport hubs outlining the new rules.
The Government says they are "marginally beneficial as a precautionary measure", and states that evidence suggests face coverings do not protect the wearer, but may protect other people if he or she is infected.
Shopkeepers have been asked to implement the new rules in their stores.
How to make a homemade face mask
Health officials have strongly urged the public not to buy up surgical masks, which are vital for frontline health workers to protect themselves while treating patients.
Instead, Brits have been advised to try making their own at home version.
Homemade masks won't offer the same protection as medical-grade masks, but experts say they still work to some level.
One of the simplest ways to make one at home is to use paper you already have at home – just take two layers of kitchen roll and one tissue cut in half.
You then cover each end with masking tape, punch two holes in and thread elastic or a hair tie through to fit around your ears.
If you want to stiffen it so that it is more secure you can add some wire into the ends before taping them up.
Another method involves using a T-shirt without the need for any sewing or stitching.
A YouTube tutorial by Runa Ray explains that for the T-shirt method, you need to cut out a 16in by 4in rectangle from the material.
Then fold it in half and measure 4in on either side before making an equal number of cuts along the edges with scissors.
Then turn the fabric inside out and knot each of the tails, but leave the four outer edges.
Cut two more strips of material and tie them to the ends – these are the straps that will go around your ears.
Some people have also used a vacuum cleaner bag to create a face mask, which is a bit more complicated – and only works if you have a spare, clean bag to hand.
The Government has also released instructions on how to make a face mask from a T-shirt.
What else can be used as a face covering?
You don't have to make your own homemade face mask to keep yourself safe.
A face covering can be as simple as a scarf or bandana that ties behind the head.
It should cover your mouth and nose while allowing you to breathe comfortably.
How to wear a face mask safely
Before putting your face mask on, wash your hands or use hand sanitiser and repeat after taking it off.
Avoid touching your eyes, nose, or mouth at all times and store used face coverings in a plastic bag until you have an opportunity to wash them.
Do not touch the front of the face covering, or the part of the face covering that has been in contact with your mouth and nose.
Once removed, make sure you clean any surfaces the face covering has touched.
You should wash a face covering regularly – it can go in with other laundry, using your normal detergent.
Who should wear a mask?
The Government had previously said that face coverings should not be used by children under the age of two – but it updated its advice on June 4.
It now says that face coverings should not be used by children under the age of three or those who may find it difficult to manage them correctly.
For example, primary age children unassisted, or those with respiratory conditions.
Children should also only wear a face mask under the supervision of an adult.
People with disabilites, breathing difficulties and children are exempt from wearing face masks in stores and on public transport.
These people have been asked to download an exemption card from the TfL website so that they can show staff when asked about wearing a face covering.
Do masks work?
Experts are still pretty divided on their effectiveness outside of a medical setting.
Wearing a mask can act as a physical barrier to prevent infecting others if you are sick by blocking the droplets that come out when you cough or sneeze.
But some experts argue that people can accidentally infect themselves when taking a mask off or they can lead to complacency with other measures such as hand-washing.
New evidence from Hong Kong about face masks has been shared confidentially with the World Health Organisation.
The data hasn't been made public yet but it reportedly suggests that the protective gear was effective in slowing the spread in Asian countries.
Professor Susan Michie, of University College London, said there is "not good evidence" to suggest wearing masks will cut transmissions.
She said: "They do not protect against the virus getting into the eyes – only close fitting goggles do this.
"People may not fit the masks properly or take them on and off. Touching face masks and not taking them off in the correct way may mean people contaminate their hands and spread the virus.
"People may have a false sense of reassurance and thus pay less attention to other behaviours key to reducing transmission such as social distancing and hand-washing."
Paul Hunter, a professor in medicine at the University of East Anglia, reviewed 31 studies which looked at the efficacy of face masks in preventing respiratory illness.
He said the research was poor, adding that it was "as easy to make an argument for opposing the widespread use of masks as it would be to make an argument promoting their use".
Most experts are in agreement that for masks to work as they are intended, they must be used correctly.
Dr Jenna Macciochi, a lecturer in immunology at the University of Sussex, told the Mail: "To be effective, a mask has to be fitted correctly, worn correctly and disposed of correctly — which is not something the general public has been trained in."
She added that not wearing one correctly is potentially more hazardous than not using one at all, as you may infect yourself with the particles the mask is protecting you against when you take it off.
The WHO says surgical masks can only help when used with other preventative measures such as frequent hand-washing.
What is the guidance on masks in the UK?
Face masks were made mandatory for people to wear on public transport from June 15 and people will be forced to wear masks in shops from July 24.
Prior to that, the Government had only advised the use of face masks in situations where people cannot keep two metres apart – such as in supermarkets.
But the new rule means that those who don't wear a face-covering on any public transport and in shops could face being fined.
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Speaking on May 5, the UK Government's chief scientific adviser, Sir Patrick Vallance, said wearing face masks had a "marginal but positive" impact on the spread of infection.
"Where masks may have a role is where distancing isn't possible, where there might be undue crowding," he added.
But Sir Patrick says wearing a mask should not replace social distancing and hand washing – which are both vital.
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